Vertical integration is a strategy where a firm acquires business operations within the same production vertical. It can be forward or backward in nature. Vertical integration can help companies reduce costs and improve efficiencies by decreasing transportation expenses and reducing turnaround time, among other advantages. However, sometimes it is more effective for a company to rely on the established expertise and economies of scale of other vendors rather than trying to become vertically integrated.
A company opts for vertical integration to ensure full control over the supply of the raw materials to manufacture its products.